The history of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan began on 14 August 1947 when the country became an independent nation in the form of Dominion of Pakistan within the British Commonwealth as the result of Pakistan Movement and the partition of India. While the history of the Pakistani Nation according to the Pakistan government’s official chronology started with the Islamic rule over Indian subcontinent by Muhammad bin Qasim which reached its zenith during Mughal Era. In 1947, Pakistan consisted of West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (today’s Bangladesh). The President of All-India Muslim League and later the Pakistan Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah became Governor-General while the secretary general of the Muslim League, Liaquat Ali Khan became Prime Minister. The constitution of 1956 made Pakistan an Islamic democratic country.
The Geography of Pakistan is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north. Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Punjab provinces lie on the north-western corner of the Indian plate while Balochistan and most of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa lie within the Eurasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian Plateau. Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes where the two tectonic plates collide.
Pakistan is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the northwest and Iran to the west while China borders the country in the northeast. The nation is geopolitically placed within some of the most controversial regional boundaries which share disputes and have many-a-times escalated military tensions between the nations, e.g., that of Kashmir with India and the Durand Line with Afghanistan. Its western borders include the Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass that have served as traditional migration routes between Central Eurasia and South Asia.
Pakistan – Country Quick-facts
Area: 796,096 square kilometers (307,374 sq mi)
Country Code: +92
Population: 216,565,318 people at mid -year according to UN data.
Population Density: 281 per Km2 (728 people per mi2)
Currency: Pakistani rupee
Drives on the: Left
Location: Pakistan is located in southern Asia. Pakistan is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the south, Iran and Afghanistan to the west, India to the east, and China to the north.
Official Language: Urdu, English
Time Zone: GMT+5
Getting a Visa for Pakistan
Applying for a visa to Pakistan via the embassy is complicated: an invitation letter is often necessary, multiple embassy visits are often necessary and you have to apply from your home country. Since 2019, Pakistan has instituted an e-visa process and a more liberal visa on arrival regime that promise to make things easier. You may already be able to use the e-visa or the visa on arrival. If not, you will still have to apply through the embassy.
Pakistan lies in the temperate zone. The climate is generally arid, characterized by hot summers and cool or cold winters, and wide variations between extremes of temperature at given locations. There is little rainfall. These generalizations should not, however, obscure the distinct differences existing among particular locations. For example, the coastal area along the Arabian Sea is usually warm, whereas the frozen snow-covered ridges of the Karakoram Range and of other mountains of the far north are so cold year round that they are only accessible by world-class climbers for a few weeks in May and June of each year.
Currency of Pakistan
The Pakistani Rupee (sign: ₨; code: abbreviated as PKR, is the official currency of Pakistan since 1948. The coins and notes are issued and controlled by the central bank, namely State Bank of Pakistan.
Best Time to Visit Pakistan
Pakistan is a frequently misunderstood country. It has gone through its own periods of turmoil, but tourism in the country has been picking up steadily over the past few years. Pakistan is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world, and has some of the finest Islamic architecture, and stunning mountain views. Pakistan has a number of things to offer to even the weariest of travelers. It is the cradle of civilization – most of the oldest sites of the Indus Valley Civilization lie to the south of the country. The great mountains of the northwest frontier province offer mountain views that will steal your breath away. May to October is generally considered the best time to travel to Pakistan, as there is little to no snow in the entire country, and the summer holidays make the country rather lively. This is the best time to travel to the northern reaches of the country, where the beautiful valleys and stunning peaks lie. This is peak trekking season as well, as the area faces little to no snow rainfall at this point.
November to April is also a good time to travel in Pakistan, as long as you go to the right places. This is the best time to visit Pakistan if you want to travel to Punjab, Baluchistan, or Sindh. These are the areas where the summer weather can be unbearable. The winter weather will be pleasant. However, if you want to visit the mountains, this might not be the best time, as you might get snowed in.